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    Archived pages: 21 . Archive date: 2014-10.

  • Title: Econowha?
    Descriptive info: .. Econowha?.. Learning Resources for Economic Literacy.. Toggle navigation.. Home.. Wha?.. How?.. Resources.. 1.. Understanding the World to Change it.. 1a.. Asking Why.. 1b.. Questioning Economics.. 1c.. Women’s Perspectives, Ecological Perspectives.. 1d.. What is the Market?.. 2.. A World in Crisis (coming soon ).. 2a.. The Financial Crisis..  ...   Fair Share?.. 2d.. Who Has The Power?.. 2e.. The People Respond.. 3.. Tools for Popular Education.. 4.. Glossary.. Meet the Bloggers.. Contact.. Free online resources for economic literacy.. What is Econowha?.. How does it work?.. Access the Resources.. A project by.. Debt Development Coalition Ireland.. | Email.. info@econowha.. ie..

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  • Title: Wha? | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: The economic system we live in does not serve the majority of the people.. Yet many of us feel that economics is too complicated to understand.. We all participate in the economy in some way; we all have a right to have an opinion on economics.. Newspapers and news outlets neatly categorise life into business, finance, political, and world news sections.. This presents life as categorised, and can hide how power relationships work in our world, and how they affect ordinary people.. Many social problems we experience are global, such as high levels of poverty and unemployment, rising inequality, the destruction of the environment, and the privatisation of essential public services.. These huge issues seem beyond our control, but they are the result of specific choices made by people with the power to enforce those decisions.. Still, it’s out of our control so there’s nothing we can do, right?.. Well, actually, we don’t agree.. We believe that people are powerful and capable of creating social change through collective action.. When we choose to examine our own experiences, and question ‘facts’, we can be surprised by the results.. is designed to support us in questioning why things are the way they are, and exploring what we can do to act for a more just global society.. We all have the power to think critically, and to influence the decisions of our governments in democracies.. The economic system we live in directly influences all of our lives, and we are all experts of our own experiences.. Through.. we hope to uncover different perspectives on the causes and consequences  ...   guide questions.. The guest bloggers come from different backgrounds and offer different perspectives.. Their responses vary in length, use of language, and writing style.. Beneath each session is a space for.. comments.. to aid.. discussion.. dialogue.. We propose that you form a.. learning circle.. with some peers to support the use Econowha? (See the How? page for more on this.. ).. The Resources section also contains.. , which can be helpful for finding creative ways of supporting learning in groups, and a.. of new or unusual words.. You will also find Extra Reading and Viewing beneath some sections, which might be useful for anyone who wishes to take their learning further.. Econowha? brings a lot of different material together to aid the learning process.. We are facilitating access to these resources as useful educational tools but do not endorse all the views contained within them.. We invite you to challenge and question the material in a way that is useful for you.. We invite you to always ask Why?.. If you would like to suggest other resources feel free to add the link in the Comments Section.. Econowha? is a joint project between Debt and Development Coalition Ireland and UCD School of Social Justice.. It was developed by Mark Malone, with support from Sian Crowley.. The website was designed by Aubrey Robinson.. This project has been undertaken with the assistance of the European Union and Irish Aid.. The content is the sole responsibility of Debt and Development Coalition Ireland, and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union and Irish Aid..

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  • Title: How? | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: You can use this resource either as an individual or in a group.. We recommend learning groups as a more supportive way to learn.. Each week a guest blogger will respond to a particular set of resources.. You can sign up to our mailing list to hear about new blog posts, or any reading materials.. Sign up by emailing.. campaign[@]debtireland.. org.. with Econowha? in the subject line.. On Your Own.. If you have trouble finding a group to learn with, or would prefer to use Econowha? on your own, you can respond to the blog posts in the Comments Section.. In A Learning Circle.. You might already be part of a group that meets regularly.. If you’re part of a community, campaigning, political, social or faith group you could use some of your meeting time as a learning circle.. Your group could do the readings and have discussions about the issues together.. If you do this, please let us know, as we can publicise the meeting for you.. You can form a new learning circle.. Ask friends, colleagues, fellow students, or anyone around you who you think  ...   community buildings, union premises, university rooms, or perhaps your workplace.. Using Econowha?.. Each group will be different, and remember, there is no right way to learn.. Use the resources in the way best suited to you and your group.. Here are some suggestions to get you started:.. Kicking off dialogue in a new group can be daunting.. Don’t worry.. Start off with introductions if people don’t know each other.. Ask prompting questions about the materials if you think it will help.. Give everyone an opportunity to share their thoughts.. Do your best to listen to other people, even if they share different opinions to you.. Agree on time limits; how long the meeting will be, how long each person has to speak, and so on.. You don t have to use all the resources in each session; why not pick one video and one reading, and have a discussion about that.. For more tips and tools to support group learning, see our Tools For Popular Education page.. Leave a Reply.. Cancel Reply.. Your email address will not be published.. Required fields are marked.. *.. Name.. Email.. Website..

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  • Title: Econowha? Resource List
    Descriptive info: Resources.. Part 1 Understanding the World to Change it.. a.. This session supports learners to explore the role that critical thinking has played in social change, and to continually ask the question, Why?.. b.. In this session we explore some of the assumptions underlying economics and how they may relate to our own beliefs on social justice and inequality.. c.. Women’s perspectives, ecological perspectives.. This session examines the importance of feminist and ecological perspectives and how they apply to economic justice issues.. d.. In this session we look at the development of the global market as we understand it today and ask, who does ‘it’ serve, and should we  ...   subprime lending in the US to its relationship to the global and shadow banking system.. This session examines debt, including the new trends in indebtedness resulting from the rise of private debt around the world.. Tax: Do companies pay their fair share?.. In this session we look at how companies can hide their corporate profits in tax havens, and what the consequences are in terms of a country s ability to pay for health, education, welfare and infrastructure.. Who Has the Power?.. This session examines the key international actors and institutions in the global economic crisis, their roles in responding to the crisis, and the nature of those responses..

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  • Title: Understanding the World to Change it | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: Understanding the World to Change It.. encourages us to examine our life experiences and relate them to the economic world that we live in.. We use a critical literacy approach, which means that when we read the articles and videos suggested here, we consider the perspective of the person who wrote the article, and question whose experience or viewpoint may be excluded.. We don’t have to  ...   opinions.. We also question economics and invite you to consider economics as a topic not just for experts and professionals, but for everyone.. We take a look at viewpoints and voices that are often forgotten in today’s economic crisis.. brings a lot of different material together to aid the learning process.. We invite you to always ask ‘Why?’.. Session.. Description.. A World in Crisis (coming soon.. e..

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  • Title: Asking Why | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: Learning is the discovery that something is possible.. Fritz Perls.. Economics isn’t just for the experts.. Critical thinking about the economy helps us to examine the relationship between our own lives and the wider world unfolding around us.. This session supports learners to explore the role that critical thinking has played in social change.. The resources challenge us to freely ask the question ‘why?’.. Why is the world so unequal? Why are some voices more dominant than others about the economy? Why are certain economic policies promoted more than others? Why?.. Learning Outcome.. That participants will understand the concept of critical literacy and the importance of questioning the way the world currently works, and in whose interests.. Blogger:.. Mark Malone.. Session question:.. Why is critical literacy important in struggles for social change?.. Blogger s Thoughts.. Critical Literacy Thinking About How We Think About Things.. by Mark Malone.. Keywords:.. Agency.. Literacy.. Pedagogy.. We live in a society and world were injustice and inequality is neither a natural nor accidental occurrence.. The implications of this reality for all of us concerned with social justice demands an interrogation of our own assumptions about how power works in our communities, societies and across borders.. Without a critical understanding of why and how injustice and inequality is perpetuated, we at best only treat symptoms rather than underlying causes.. It is from this starting point that critical pedagogy asks us to both think and act.. The video ‘Why Critical Pedagogy’ introduces us to the ideas and work of Paulo Freire and other critical educationalists such as Henry Giroux.. Collectively they describe how our formal education systems are akin to factories for children, rather than spaces of neutral knowledge transfer which is how we are encouraged to think about schools.. Instead of explicitly developing the critical capacities and agency of students and teachers alike, more often than not, our schools and universities are shaped to suit the demands of ‘the markets.. ’.. One quote from teacher Shirley Steinberg is telling:.. “.. The work we do is dangerous many times.. People aren t happy to see disenfranchised groups raise their voices.. They are not interested in hearing people go out and say ‘I exist and you have to listen to me.. ’”.. In this she touches upon the social power dynamics that lie at the heart of questions of ‘the truth’ and knowledge.. Who gets to define ‘the truth’? Whose truth does our education system systemically represent and whose does it not represent? Critical literacy asks us to specifically address these questions of power.. Critical literacy understands that knowledge is socially dependent.. In practice, critical pedagogy rejects the notion that students are empty vessels to be filled with knowledge held by teachers.. Instead students’ capacity is developed in dialogue, conversation and critically engaging with facts.. Such processes help encourage conceptual tools central to the examining of power relationships within societies.. The traditional boundaries of learner and teacher are challenged.. John Pilger’s piece looks at how mainstream media plays a significant role in (mis)shaping public knowledge and critical understanding of the world around us.. The making invisible of injustices reduces the possibility of fighting them precisely because it reduces our capacity to understand and act.. Perhaps pessimistically Pilger sees the interplay of media communications, social media and traditional media as an echo chamber that leaves out “crucial information that might help us make sense of the world”.. This has led us to the development of the corporate state and the roll-back of democracy.. Heather Coffey describes how conceptual tools help in understanding the power dynamics in our lives and societies as well as acting to challenge inequality.. In introducing the work of John Dewey, Behrman, and Cervetti and many others, we discover that critical literacy education has a long and rich history and many applications.. These vary from engaged reading – being able to critically situate texts within competing value bases that identify inequalities – to the connection of curriculum to action in the outside world that seeks to address injustice.. At the core of all these materials some observations are worth stating clearly.. Critical literacy is a deeply humanising process.. It is not simply about knowing more stuff, but about challenging ourselves and others about how we act and relate in the world today.. It  ...   pm.. Angela Rickard from NUI Maynooth Dept of Education emphasises the importance of initial teachers exploring critical pedagogy more deeply and in groups through the econowha? resource in her blog published today.. Thanks Angela!.. http://devedweek.. wordpress.. com/2014/04/25/econowha-dot-ie/.. Reply.. Angela Rickard.. April 26, 2014 at 12:24 pm.. Thanks for that Nessa I do think it s vital for everyone teachers and students to engage critically and I ve become increasingly interested in how Development Education can be a vehicle for that in schools.. And indeed I ve have seen some great examples of students asking why and being proactive about learning.. Looking at the Why Critical Pedagogy video above I was reminded of a viral video posted about a year ago to YouTube where a US high school student (Jeff Bliss) lashes out at his teacher for not engaging with the class and not getting them excited about learning.. It highlights the responsibility teachers have even if it might be a little scary from a teacher s perspective! But what is it they say if it doesn t frighten you it isn t worth doing!?.. Here s that rant:.. http://www.. youtube.. com/watch?v=iflIOklflrg.. Angela.. Anne Garvey.. April 30, 2014 at 8:53 pm.. I will start with questions.. Is this project aimed at developing an understanding of economics for adult learners? Is your pedagogical approach Freirean? If it is, then you must start where the learner is at You must pose questions to the learner about their understanding of their own lives/issues/understandings and allow the learner to define the issues from their world view.. This resource appears to be presenting a predefined problem to the learner from the outset.. Telling the learner what the issues are before establishing a relationship with the learner and giving the learner the power to define the issue and the context in which it impacts their lives.. Freire, like other successful adult educators Horton and Vella did not employ teachers when working with adult learners.. The approach you present here may be successful with adult learners in third level institutions who are compliant and look to the teacher/lecturer to define their world , a pedagogical approach which is familiar within the formal education sector.. In an adult community setting however, this approach is unlikely to develop the critical literacy required and so well advocated by Freire et al.. Adult education invloves learners in a process of reflection analysis and action.. It appears in this instance that the analysis was completed without the learner and that the learner will be presented with your analysis from your world view.. sian.. May 1, 2014 at 3:25 pm.. Thanks for this Ann, we really appreciate you taking the time to critique the resource.. We certainly hope that econowha? doesn t close down debate or narrow down analysis, rather we have prioritised justice centred perspectives which we felt are often left out of mainstream analysis in the hope that they may be a starting point for discussion.. As we highlight in our wha? section on the site, Econowha? seeks to bring different material together to aid the learning process.. We are just facilitating access to these resources and invite users of the site to challenge and question the material in a way that is useful for you.. It would be brilliant if you and others would add new and different questions or resources.. In addition, the learning circle approach is intended to support learners comment, critique and redefine the questions being posed.. We don t claim that online discussion tools can ever replace learners direct exchange with each other.. Mel Bracken.. May 13, 2014 at 11:45 am.. Interesting point around starting where the learner is at and whether this is at odds with presenting a justice-oriented (or indeed, any oriented ) perspective.. I think lots of (good) educators worry about imposing biased or pre-defined world views to learners, but Freire himself said that education is never neutral, it is always either liberating or domesticating.. I think the resources here offer a useful counterbalance to the domesticating perspectives we are constantly exposed to in mainstream media.. I work in adult and community education settings (i.. e.. , definitely not a teacher!) and think these resources are very appropriate for offering alternative worldviews (alongside more dominant ones) which learners can critique and question..

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  • Title: Questioning Economics | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: It s not an investment if it s destroying the planet.. Vandana Shiva.. Before we dive into different aspects of economics it is useful to ask what we might need to unlearn as well as learn.. Mainstream economics is often presented as a science, separate from questions of ethics, social values, and the day-to-day experiences of people.. As we will see in this session, much of what is taught and talked about as fact in mainstream economics can be closer to belief.. Yet, economists, policy makers, or indeed corporate lobbyists do not speak about this.. In the readings we will explore some of these assumptions and underlying beliefs and how they relate to our own beliefs on social justice and inequality.. Learning outcome.. That participants will critically reflect on their own understanding of economics, and how it links to issues of inequality.. John Barry.. Session Question:.. Is mainstream economics common sense? What values drive it?.. capitalism.. capitalist economics.. economic growth.. ideology.. neo-classical economics.. neoliberal.. political economy.. Questioning Economics: beyond ‘common-sense’.. by John Barry.. Professor of Green Political Economy, Queens University Belfast.. Economics while presented and viewed by most people as ‘dry’, ‘objective’ or scientific’, is seen as ‘difficult’ and best left to ‘experts’ who know better i.. those we hear on the media authoritatively and confidently talking about ‘real wage decreases’, ‘economic growth’, ‘the need for competitiveness’ and ‘foreign direct investment’ and telling us, the public, how the ‘markets’ have reacted to the latest government policy etc.. In short, economics is seen as up there with nuclear physics as simply beyond the capacity or competence of people to understand and since it is something that only ‘economic experts’ can comment on, we as citizens are simply left with having to trust these experts.. Yet, while of course, like any area of life there are technical issues that a minority will train and become expert in, the overall subject of economics, even in a modern complex world such as ours, is not that difficult for ordinary citizens to understand.. Indeed in many important respects modern economics that we hear and read about in the newspapers, TV, radio and universities is more akin to a language, an off-putting one no doubt, about a subject the main elements of which however could be grasped by most people.. What we need to do is translate the language into one that is more easily understood and the best way of doing this is to reveal the political and ethical values underpinning the dominant or ‘common-sense’ way in which economics is presented in the modern world.. It is because economics, or more correctly political economy (since every form of economics is political, as Tim Jackson, Jim Standford and ‘The story of Stuff’ illustrate in different ways), is something that is highly political and involves value judgements means that most people can and should understand it.. The fact that the majority of citizens find it off-putting tells its own tale in terms of whose interests are served by the majority of people not knowing or fully understanding the thinking and principles which underpin and justify the economic conditions within which and under which they live, work, invest and consume.. The main form of ‘economics’ and how ‘the economy’ is understood within both the media and in formal education is ‘capitalist economics’ (Barry, 2012).. That is, an understanding of how to arrange the economy (how we make, distribute and consume goods and services) and especially to do this to make the economy grow, understood as increasing the monetary value of the circulation of goods and services.. That is, how to achieve ‘economic growth’ or ‘more stuff’.. This dominant  ...   mistake has been made: the confusion and conflation of ‘capitalism’ with the ‘economy’.. Think of when an ‘economist’ is called to comment in the media, it is without exception a neo-classical economist, who will (generally speaking) talk about (and defend) capitalism.. Rarely do we hear non neo-classical economists in our media, or if we do these are not accorded the label of ‘economists’ but ‘political commentators’, nicely eliding the fact that those called ‘economic experts’ are also political commentators.. This depoliticised account is a central element of the neo-classical vision of itself as a ‘value-free’, ‘objective’ and ‘neutral’ form of knowledge.. And in identifying capitalism as what dominant views of economics are really talking about, enables us to understand why ‘growth’ is such an important imperative for this dominant, common-sense view of economics.. Capitalism requires continuous economic growth (around 3% per year) just to be stable, therefore this type of economy has two positions – it either ‘goes and grows’, or it collapses.. It has no other default position.. Which is why it is a problem in terms of sustainability – the natural world upon which the human economy depends is not growing, so how can a sub-system grow beyond the capacity of this non-growing larger system? This opens up the possibility of alternative economic models – ones that are not capitalist or based on continuous economic growth – and the development of these alternatives that is most pressing in the 21st century, to not simply develop policies for dealing with climate change or growing wealth and income inequalities but above all else to democratise and re-politicise our thinking about economics.. References.. Barry, John.. (2012),.. The Politics of Actually Existing Unsustainability: Human Flourishing in a Climate-Changed, Carbon-Constrained World.. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).. ly/1ljz2N0.. 1: Video: The Story of Stuff.. This lovely video explains the problem with believing in limitless economic growth; “You cannot run a linear system on a finite planet indefinitely”.. ly/1ipdw7N.. 2: Tim Jackson Economic Reality Check , TED talk.. In this TED talk.. , Tim Jackson explain his catch-phrase; that ‘growth’ encourages us to “Spend money we don’t have on things we don’t need to create impressions that won’t last on people we don’t care about… when all we wanted to do was create to create a decent place for ourselves in the world.. ”.. ly/1ljeXL2.. 3: “Why Study Economics? – Jim Stanford (Chapter Extract).. This introductory chapter (PDF).. is a really straightforward explanation why economics matters for everyone.. You don’t need to read the entire chapter, just until page 9.. ly/1gQZfiK.. Extra reading / viewing.. Video: Dr.. John Barry,.. “Arguing for Post Growth Economics”.. (The first 10 minutes is particularly relevant.. ).. ly/1ngT4M9.. Aldred, J.. , (2009).. Chapter 2 Two Myths About Economic Growth , in.. The Skeptical Economist Revealing the Ethics inside Economics ,.. (Earthscan).. Kaufman, C.. , (2003).. Chapter 2 Capitalism, Freedom and the Good Life , in.. Ideas for Action,.. (South End Press).. One thought on.. Peter Donnelly.. May 3, 2014 at 11:09 pm.. A real eye opener, World economics and greed For DUMMIES like me.. Absolutely brilliant.. In 2007, Annie Leonard put together a 20 minute documentary on 20th century’s disposable culture.. She hoped to educate an aspirational ‘50,000 people’ about our obsession with consumerism and sustainable alternatives.. Posted on her website and on YouTube, her little film about trash went viral.. Six years later, The Story of Stuff has been translated into 10 languages, viewed over 15 million times, and is now used in schools, economics educational syllabus, arts programs, places of worship and corporate sustainability trainings.. A must see for anyone who wants an overview of how the World functions today..

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  • Title: Women’s Perspectives, Ecological Perspectives | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: We remind the leaders of the world s richest, most powerful nations that in truth, the North owes the South.. The wealth of the North has been accumulated largely at the expense of the South our land, our minerals, our forests, and waters, our labour, our communities, our economics, our cultures, our governments, our freedom, our lives.. Jubilee South, Network of Southern Justice Movements.. Women’s rights and environmental rights are just some examples of what is excluded from most commentary of the current economic crisis.. Social justice movements all over the world believe that feminist and ecological perspectives are crucial in helping us to understand the real impacts of mainstream economics on our real-life experiences.. These perspectives might offer new solutions to growing inequality and the destruction of the natural world.. We suggest that the values and ethics of feminist and ecological perspectives offer us a fresh understanding of economics, allowing space for the things that matter in our lives, like power, care, solidarity and sustainability.. That participants will gain an understanding of feminist and ecological perspectives and how they apply to economic justice issues.. Cathleen O’Neill.. How can feminists and ecological perspectives help explain the world? Does the progress of capitalism depend on the exploitation of both women and the environment?.. Capitalism.. Care Labour.. Love Labour.. Neoliberal.. Patriarchal Structure.. Recession.. Second Wave Feminism.. Social Policy.. Solidarity Care.. Response to Women’s Perspectives, Ecological Perspectives.. by Cathleen O’Neill.. The Caoin.. I started to scream again today.. A slow sad scream of frustrated anger.. Today I wailed at the wall of officialdom!.. Smug, smiling, filing cabinet face.. Closed to my desperate entreaty.. Social justice is a right.. Don’t dole it out like charity.. I stood there, dead-locked, mind-locked.. Helpless in his sightless one dimension world.. With dignity in danger, I turned and.. Slowly, silently I walked away.. And my mind screamed a slow , sad caoin for the Women.. And damned their Patriarchy.. During the recession in the mid 80’s I was a very young mother with 5 children who had been forced onto social welfare after a marriage breakup.. The combination of recession, depression, feminism and poverty made for a fast learning curve as I battled week after week with one state or political official or another for survival.. As an introduction to this article I start with a poem that I had published during those battles, and sadly those same feelings evident in the poem are as unchanged today as the day it was written.. Yet, there was hope to be found in the 80’s.. The second wave of feminism was still having an impact, particularly in the media, as women journalists debated the issues and produced a raft of TV and radio programmes to raise awareness of the issues facing women.. Working class women were setting up daytime adult education centres that were community based.. Politics, feminism, women’s publishing houses and community based writing groups gave a voice to women.. It was possible in those days to meet with and lobby your local TD or government minister to advocate on behalf of your community or group.. Out of this space many voluntary projects and community development projects were funded by the state.. Yes there was poverty and social class discrimination; yes there was huge inequality in the state; in schools, in work and  ...   draw attention to the fact that women make up the majority of people living in poverty.. Households headed by women are at the greatest risk of poverty.. Women with a disability are twice as likely to live in poverty.. Cuts to social welfare were life and death issues and affected women more than men.. We screamed as loud as we could that the State was conducting a war against the poor, that is was actively engaged in hostile, economic and cultural action against women.. It was to no affect, our protest went unheard even as we continued the fight.. In the present crisis we totally need to push our feminist perspective worldwide.. We need to end the gender blind nature of government and social policies.. We must educate ourselves and the policy makers about the fact that women make up the majority of the working poor, that they are mostly in low paid jobs, with zero hour contracts, and so on.. The whole nature of Care Labour or Solidarity Care needs to be debated in political and public forums for without Solidarity Labour Capitalism cannot continue to grow.. We must promote the work of feminist writers and economists.. They have produced fantastic research and policies.. It is clear to us all that Capitalism relies on the existence of unpaid work (Love Labour) that is done by women globally in order to satisfy its greed and growth.. We should demand that the feminist voice be included in the mainstream commentary on the current global economic crisis.. And we must ensure that our own values and ethics can offer new ways of Naming our own world and bring about positive change for all.. Patriarchal structures and Capitalism will not be changed without a massive battle being fought, but we are able and ready to win this challenge.. As mentioned already, these are life and death issues for ourselves and our communities and our world.. 1: Video: Vandana Shiva on Democracy Now!, ‘Capitalist Patriarchy’s has Aggravated Violence Against Women’.. In this video Vandana Shiva speaks to fellow woman activist Amy Goodman about the connection between different forms of violence.. She says “We are living in a violent economic order to which war has become essential; war against the earth, war against women’s bodies, war against local economies, and war against democracy.. ly/1qeoilZ.. 2: Feminist Economics: A Brief Introduction.. This.. resource.. describes how the unpaid work and major contribution of women to society is typically written out of the economic story, and the impact this has.. ly/1hl58cI.. 3: When Climate Justice Means Fewer Cuts – Nick Deardon.. In this brief.. article.. , Nick Deardon tells us that we need to claim our own story.. In this new story economic justice and environmental justice go hand in hand.. ly/1oGOsAD.. 4: Video: Introduction to Climate Justice and Climate Injustice.. This video gives an introduction to Climate Justice – poor countries are far more susceptible to the impacts of climate change than the rich countries who are responsible for the crisis.. The video was made in Canada, so has a slight focus from Canada, but is still relevant to everyone.. ly/1qeeJBI.. Extra reading.. Barker, D.. K.. , Feiner, S.. F.. , (2004).. Chapter 1 Economics , She Wrote in.. Liberating Economics: Feminist Perspectives on Families, Work and Globalization,.. (University of Michigan Press)..

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  • Title: What is the Market? | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: Nowadays people know the price of everything and the value of nothing.. Oscar Wilde.. In this session we look at the development of the global market as we understand it today.. We explore how belief in the market developed and often involved severe exploitation of people through slavery, colonisation and the taking of land in the Global South and closer to home.. Governments and international institutions often speak about the need for ‘market confidence’.. In this session, we ask, what is ‘the market’, who does ‘it’ serve, and why should we have confidence in it?.. That participants will critique the dominant idea of ‘market’ from a justice perspective, and examine the role of powerful actors and institutions in sustaining it.. That participants will be introduced to some key economic and financial concepts.. Áine Mannion.. What is the Market? Who does it serve?.. Arbitrage.. Class.. Colonialism.. The Commons.. Elasticity.. Empire.. Food Sovereignty.. Imperialism.. Globalisation.. Scramble for Africa.. Slavery.. Surplus.. by Áine Mannion.. Living in Ireland over the past few years you could be forgiven for thinking that “the market” exists in some incomprehensible place between maths and mysticism.. We have been bombarded with images of “the market” as some all-knowing yet benevolent figure which can only be understood by us petty mortals through its intermediaries – the economic experts.. But.. has been teaching us to be sceptical of experts and to think critically about the “neutral” worldview they present us.. Neutrality hides as much as it presents, especially, as we have seen, in relation to gender, the developing world, and the environment.. A market is simply anywhere things are bought and sold.. So the local.. Centra.. is a market, as is.. iTunes.. , the.. NASDAQ.. , and the.. English Market.. in Cork.. For me, the fact that the.. was established in 1788 highlights that markets have been around a long time and, in fact, have existed all over the world for thousands of years.. Markets predate capitalism.. The confusion starts when people say “the market”, meaning “the Free Market”, which is a current economic.. system.. of organising production, distribution and consumption.. I found it useful to think of.. Economic History.. A Brief History of European Colonization in Africa.. together as an introduction to both markets and the Free Market.. Jim Stanford’s chapter shows that the Free Market is just one of many systems that have arisen so far and that even within Free Market Capitalism there are different models based on differing historical backgrounds.. A Brief History picks up on a point that I felt Standford hadn’t addressed very well: the  ...   of environmental costs, the cost of slavery or the cost of consuming junk food.. Hahnel states that mainstream economics makes an assumption that there are no external effects or public goods but that “this assumption is usually unstated and its validity has never been demonstrated through empirical research.. ” (p.. 92).. So, yes, I still believe a market is any place where goods or services are bought or sold.. But once I started to think about markets as they exist in reality (in the Free Market system) I couldn’t rely on assumptions of rationality, neutrality, or fairness.. Instead, I was thinking about global repercussions, exploitation, the environment, and what we really value.. One assumption about the Free Market is that it wants as little government involvement as possible but Stanford says that.. “this definition is not quite accurate: in fact, there are still many ways in which governments and the state continue to wield real economic power under neoliberal capitalism.. […] What has changed is how, and in whose interests, that power is now exercised.. 48).. Unfortunately, thinking about who the free market really serves got too depressing, so I kept some words by Jim Stanford close:.. “Economic systems come, and economic systems go.. No economic system lasts forever.. Capitalism is not likely to last forever, either.. 1: Economic History Jim Stanford.. (Chapter 3, pp.. 40-51 in “Economics for Everyone” Jim Stanford).. In.. Chapter 3 of Economics for Everyone (PDF).. , Jim Stanford traces the evolution of economic history; from the hunter-gatherer to slavery, to feudalism, to capitalism, and so on.. Don’t have much time? Read pages 40 to 43.. ly/QHrgTp.. 2: Video: A Brief History Of European Colonization in Africa.. (Warning: This video contains imagery of colonial atrocities which some viewers may find upsetting.. These images occur towards the end of the video, after 3.. 10 minutes.. This video explains how colonization was motivated by the European hunger for African resources.. http://bitly.. com/PS3zXZ.. 3: Video: DN! Raj Patel on The Value of Nothing.. Raj Patel argues for the importance of finding new ways of valuing life outside of the market.. com/QX78xn.. 4: “Markets: Guided by an invisible hand or foot” Robin Hahnel.. (Chapter 4, pp.. 71-99 in “ABCs of Political Economy” Robin Hahnel).. this chapter.. , Robin Hahnel explains how the markets ‘works’; the law of supply and demand, and the ‘dream’ of the invisible hand of the market.. Don’t have much time? Read pages 71 to 75.. ly/1iftbKP.. Extra Reading.. Video:.. The Story of Cap and Trade: new climate markets.. ly/1lAuIgE.. Article: Bollier, David,.. Why Polyani still Matters.. ly/QurIVa..

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  • Title: Tools for Popular Education | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: If you’ve never run a group meeting before, it can be a bit daunting.. Don’t worry, you might be a bit nervous at first, but with practice, you’ll get used to it and it will come naturally.. It’s always a good idea to start groups with a ‘Go-Around’ of introductions if everyone in the group does not know each other.. Also, we recommend that when you start the session, you all agree that the group depends on the active participation and  ...   that can help overcome nerves and build trust within a group.. ly/1mv33NL.. Resources for Popular Education.. Here you might find.. some resources that are helpful when running adult learning groups, activities, approaches, and ideas.. ly/QzpsM7.. Tools for Facilitating Meetings and Workshops.. This website provide some great ‘how-to’ guides which are really helpful when it comes to running group meetings.. There are lots of tips on how to facilitate, how to include people, how to deal with difficult moments, and lots more.. ly/1mrrKbi..

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  • Title: Glossary | Econowha?
    Descriptive info: This glossary is based on the work of Anglo: Not Our Debt campaign materials, ICAN’s Dictionary of Debt, and the additional work of DDCI.. As the meanings of many of these terms are contested, we have drawn from a wide range of sources that tend toward factual definitions or, when a term is highly political, we tend toward more open definitions that encourage personal interpretation.. We don t claim that this glossary presents the only possible explanation of these terms.. A person’s agency is their capacity to act based on their own thoughts and free will, and to make their own choices.. This is an economic term that describes taking advantage of price differences in the markets.. Arbitrage is the buying and selling of an asset (for example commodities, financial items or foreign exchange) at the same time in order to profit from a difference in prices.. Austerity.. This is a policy of lower spending, involving cutbacks or reductions in the amounts of benefits and public services provided.. Austerity policies are often used by governments to reduce their debts.. Bilateral Loans.. A loan from one country to another.. Bondholder.. A bondholder is an investor who holds this IOU and is usually a bank or investment company.. Bonds.. A bond is a type of IOU issued by a government, local authority or company to raise money.. The investor or holder of the bond loans a certain amount of money, for a certain amount of time at a certain interest rate.. A government/sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government.. Bretton Woods Agreement and Bretton Woods System.. This is a system of monetary management determines the rules which govern financial and commercial relationships between the major global industrial states.. The Agreement was formalised in 1944, and established rules, standard practices, and institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group.. Capital or Principle.. The initial amount of the loan.. An economic system where the means of production, distribution, and exchange are privately owned.. The primary goal of the private owners is to make a profit.. The basis of capitalism is the idea that the pursuit of self-interest is paramount and that the state exists to protect the individual.. Capitalist Economics.. See.. see.. Casino economy.. A casino economy is one in which investments and banking measures are considered extremely risky, and investors have little or no control or foresight of the outcome of their investment.. When people talk about ‘class’, what they mean is a group or section of society who share similar positions in the economic system of production, for example their access to finance and disposable income, healthcare, education, and so on.. Collateralised debt obligation (CDO).. This is a kind of financial instrument in which different assets are pooled together – for example mortgages, bonds and loans.. They are repackaged together as tranches (a part of an investment).. These tranches can be sold to investors who hope to make profit from them.. What is particular about CDOs is that the pooled assets are actually debt obligations.. In this way investors hope to make a profit from the repayments of loans such as mortgages and so on.. This is taking over of one territory by another territory.. It includes the acquisition of people and land, the exploitation of people and land, and the upholding and spreading out of power and control into the taken territory.. It is characterised by an imbalance of power in the relationship between the coloniser and the colonised, who are typically an indigenous population.. The European colonial period occurred from the 16th century onwards, during which a numerous of European powers established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.. Commercial Loans.. The creditor is a private financial institution, such as a bank.. Commons (The).. The Commons is the shared cultural and natural property and resources that are available to all people in a society.. These include natural resources such as clean air, water, land, and a livable environment, that are held collectively by a society, and are not owned privately.. If they are owned privately, there should be a traditional right to public access.. Conditions or Strings.. Actions or policies that a country must take or implement in order to qualify for debt relief or aid from some institutions.. Credit default swap (CDS).. This is an agreement relating to a ‘financial swap’, whereby the party selling the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a default or similar event.. Critical Literacy.. This is an approach to reading and learning in which the learner is encouraged to actively engage with what they are reading or viewing.. This means to ask questions about the material, to develop strategies for interpreting it from different perspectives, to uncover hidden meaning, or underlying messages.. Debt Cancellation.. A relief from the burden of repaying both the principle and interest on past loans.. Debt.. Owing money.. Debt Relief.. Debt relief may take the form of cancellation, rescheduling, refinancing, or reorganization.. Debt Scheduling or Re-scheduling.. A form of relief by which the dates on which principal or interest payments are due are delayed or rearranged.. Debt Service.. Interest plus repayments of principal.. Default.. The failure to fulfill an obligation to repay a debt.. Development.. The aspiration for and progress toward increased well-being.. Domestic financial markets.. Trading financial products within a single national entity.. Economic / financial crisis.. A situation in which the value of financial institutions or assets drops rapidly.. A financial crisis is often associated with a panic or a run on the banks,  ...   between countries.. It can be seen as a wide set of rules and institutions where assets are traded and where institutions lay down the rules.. Leverage.. This is a term for any technique to multiply gains and losses.. Most often this involves buying more of an asset by using borrowed funds.. The belief is that the income from the asset will be more than the cost of borrowing.. The ability to read and write.. The primary sense of literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of texts.. This is productive work performed voluntarily without material compensation.. It is often used to refer to the care work which is done within the home and the community, which is not acknowledged as ‘work’.. Marshall Plan.. A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952); named after George Marshall.. Neoclassical/Neoliberal/Orthodox economics.. Neoclassical economics is an economic theory that argues for markets to be free.. This means governments should generally not make rules about who may make things, who may sell things, who may buy things, prices, quantities or types of things sold and bought.. The theory argues that allowing individual actors (people or businesses) freedom creates better economic outcomes.. Neoliberalism is a label for economic liberalism.. Its advocates support free trade and open markets, deregulation, and enhancing the role of the private sector in modern society.. Odious Debt.. Odious debt arises from loans which should never have been extended in the first place because of the oppressive, tyrannous or corrupt nature of the regime to which they were granted.. Sometime known as ‘odious lending’.. Official Loans.. The creditor is a government or multilateral institution.. Onerous Debt.. Debts are recognized as being unenforceable if their terms are unreasonable.. This could be applicable to some sovereign debt, especially in cases where the borrower could be considered to have had no choice in their financial circumstances but to accept the terms of the loan.. Paris Club.. An informal group of 19 creditor countries that negotiate as a bloc, behind closed doors, with individual poor countries that approach them over debt crisis.. Deals only with bilateral debts, ie those being paid direct to the countries and not multilateral organizations like the World Bank.. A social system in which males are the primary authority figures, occupying roles of leadership, moral authority, and control of property and culture.. Payable / Unpayable Debt.. An unpayable debt is a debt where the total cost exceeds the borrowers’ ability to pay.. The method and practice of teaching.. Petro-Dollars.. A petrodollar is a United States dollar earned by a country through the sale of its oil to another country.. Political Economy.. The study of the interrelationships between political and economic processes.. A period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.. Regional Development Banks.. Regional institutions that have functions similar to the World Bank group s activities, but with particular focus on a specific region.. Shareholders usually consist of the regional countries plus the major donor countries.. The best-known including the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank; the African Development Bank.. The race between European powers to invade, occupy and colonize African territories during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.. Second-wave feminism.. This is a period of feminist activity beginning around the early 1960s.. It later became a worldwide movement.. Whereas first-wave feminism focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality, second-wave feminism broadened the debate to a wide range of issues including sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, and official legal inequalities.. Shadow Banks.. Financial institutions not subject to the traditional regulation of banks.. A system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work.. Guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect living conditions conducive to human welfare and human rights.. Emotional and other work involved in creating love, care and solidarity relations (See also Care Labour and Love Labour.. Sovereign Debt.. Sovereign debt or government/public debt is money or credit owed by a government.. As the government draws its income from much of the population, sovereign debt is really the taxpayer’s debt.. Special Purpose vehicle (SPV).. The SPV is usually a subsidiary company with an asset/liability structure and legal status that makes its obligations secure even if the parent company goes bankrupt.. Strings.. Conditions.. Sub-prime Loan.. A type of loan that is offered at a more expensive rate than traditional loans to individuals who do not qualify for prime rate loans.. Subprime borrowers are often turned away from traditional lenders because of their low credit ratings or other factors that suggest that they have a reasonable chance of defaulting on the debt repayment.. More than or in excess of what is needed or required.. Sustainable Debt.. Debt sustainability is often defined as the ability of a country to meet its debt obligations without requiring debt relief or accumulating high levels of arrears.. The Troika.. The Troika is the name given to the three institutions that Ireland made the so-called ‘bailout agreement with in November 2010.. They are the IMF, the European Commission, and the European Central Bank (ECB).. Unsustainable Debt.. Where a debt may be legal and used for the benefit of the people and in isolation its terms are not overly onerous, it may nevertheless be unpayable because of the country relative to its debt-servicing capacity.. World Bank.. The world’s biggest development organisation, providing low-interest loans and grants to developing countries.. Established in 1945 and based in Washington DC.. USA..

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